Fatawa >Glossary

 

Glossary


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Ada’: Lit. on time; when prayer, or any other act of worship is performed on its prescribed time. (Compare qadha’’).


Adnal hil: Nearest point to the area of Haram where ihram can be worn, its niyyah can be r newed. 

Adhan: The call for prayer.

Al’amr bilma’rouf wannahi anil munkar: Enjoining what is good and forbdding what is wrong.

al - Hakim Shari’: Jurist or Marji’

(a.s.):An acronym for "Alaihis salaam": May peace be with him. 

Asr: Afternoon prayer.

Ayah: Lit. sign; verse of the Holy Qur’an.

Ayahs of Sajdah: The four Qur’anic Verses in the Chapters: Iqra’, an-Najm, as-Sajdah, and Fussilat; it is obligatory to prostrate oneself on hearing them recited.

 -B-            
Ba’adaz zawaal: After the disc of the sun descends towards the West. (See zawaal).

Basmalah: An acronym for "Bismillahir Rahman ar Ra In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Batil: Lit. null and void, or invalid and unlawful, e.g. A contract becomes batil when it does not satisfy the divine laws of Islam. 
  -D-                                        
Dhuhr: Lit. noon; lunchtime prayer.

Dhikr: Remembrance :The utterance of "subhanal lah, wal hamdu lillah, wala illahh illal lah, wallahu akbar" - Glory be to Allah; praise be to Allah; there is no god but Allah; Allah is great, which is usually made during the second and third ruku’ of a prayer

Dirham:3.456 grams of silver.

  -E-                                            

Eid: Festivities marking the end of the fasting season, or festivities of sacrifice after hajj.

 -F-                                                 

Farsakh: A unit of distance, equivalent to eleven kilometres.

Fatwa: Religious edict.

Fidya: Redemption (from certain religious obligations by a material donation or a ritual act).

Fiqh :Jurisprudence.

 -G-                                               

Ghusl: Obligatory bathing that is required after certain acts or occurrences, as a prelude to some acts of worship.
  -H-                                              

Hadith: Prophetic traditions: sayings and actions of Prophet Mohammad )s.a.w.)

Hady: Sacrificial offering, as part of hajj rituals.

Hajj: The pilgrimage to Mekka undertaken according to the prescribed ritual during the month of Thil Hijja

Hajjatul Islam: A Muslim’s maiden pilgrimage to Mekka, that is obligatory when you can afford the journey.

Hajjul Ifraad: A type of hajj which is applicable to those who live in Makkah or at a certain distance from it.

Hajjul Qiraan:The performance of hajj and umrah at the same time. 

Hajji-ut- Tamatu:A type of hajj which is applicable to those living outside Makkah, i.e. away from the prescribed distance. 

Halal: Lawful for use, consumption, or to act upon.

Haraam/Muharram:Unlawful or forbidden for use, consumption, or to act upon.

Harakat:Marks or symbols, such as shaddah, maddah, tanween, hamzatul wasl or qat’, appearing above the Arabic characters or below them that denote and aid the proper pronunciation of the words, both independently and in relation to other words in the sentence.

Haram: Lit. sacred, holy; the complex of The Grand Mosque )al masjidil haraam( in Makkah and the surrounding area 

Haydh: A woman’s monthly period.

Heddet tarakhus: The point at the periphery of a town where, for example, adhan could beheard.This concerns distances to determine whether prayer should be said tamam or qasr.

  -I-                                               
Ibadaat: Acts of worship.

Ijarah: Hire.

Ihram: The special two-piece seamless attire worn by pilgrims. Also, the state of ritual consecration during which the pilgrim should abstain from certain acts, such as not combing, not shaving, and observing sexual continence.

Ihtiyat: Lit. precaution, or prudence; a level of religious legal judgement by a jurist.

Ihtiyat wujubi: Obligatory precaution that must be adhered to.

Ihtiyat mustahab: Voluntary precaution.

Ijtihad: Lit. exertion; the process of arriving at judgements on points of religious law using reason and the principles of jurisprudence (usul al-fiqh).

Inshallah: God willing.

I’tikaf: Lit. seclusion; applying oneself zealously for the service of Allah, for a given period, usually in a mosque.

Iqamah: A shortened form of adhan, heralding the inauguration of prayer. 

Isha: Evening prayer. 

Ishkal: Grey area, or problematic for the jurist to give a clear-cut opinion.


Istihadhah: Undue menses, or lesser haydh.

Istikharah: The process of asking Allah for guidance in certain matters you are unable to decide on, through, for example, consulting the verses of the Holy Qur’an .

Istisqa’: prayer for rainfall.

Itq: Freeing of a slave.

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Jabirah: Lit. splint: a generic name used for any form of dressing applied to any part of the body as a result of injury or illness. 

Jamarat: Places of the three stone slabs representing the devil, at Mina.(See rami)

Janabah: The state of being ceremonially unclean, especially after a sexual act that may or may not lead to ejaculation.

Jihad: Lit. effort or striving; holy war against the infidels, especially in self-defence. 

Kafir: Non-believer.

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Kaffarah: Atonement, or expiation: making repayment for some failure to act, harm done to others, etc.

Khabath: material uncleanliness (najasah) such as blood and urine.


Khums: A type of religious tax, equivalent to one fifth of net taxable income.


Kurr : Kurr A unit of volume, equivalent to 384 litres of water.

-M-                                                 

Madhalim: Material or moral restitution or compensation to people you have wronged.

Maghrib: Sunset prayer.

Maghsoub: Usurped or acquired by unlawful means. 

Mahaarim: One’s immediate relatives - according to a certain classification detailed in Shari’a law.

Makrouh: Abominable act.

Manasikul Hajj: Pilgrimage rites


Marji’: Lit. reference point for emulation, or religious authority; a cleric whose knowledge and probity qualify him to be followed in all points of religious practice and law by the generality of Shia Muslims

Mujtahid: A clergyman who has studied sufficiently and achieved the level of competence necessary to interpret shari’a law )see Ijtihad).

Mu’amalaat: Transactions.

Mubah: (Of water and other equity); free for public use.

Mukallaf: Comopos mentis; the person obligated to observe the precepts of religion.

Musafir: Traveller.

Mustahab: A voluntary, and meritorious, act of worship. (See wajib - obligatory)

Mudhaf: (Of water)؛ mixed not pure.

Mutahirat: Purifying agents.

Mutlaq: (Of water)؛ pure not mixed. 

Muwakkil: Mandator, i.e. the person who use the services of an agent for performing a devotional act for them.
 -N-                                                     
Najasah: Ritual impurity

Najis: some things are inherently najis, others can become najis through contact with an inherently najis substances. 

Nifas: Bleeding that occurs after childbirth, miscarriage, or abortion.

Nisab: Minimum amount of property liable to payment of zakat.

Niyyah:Intention: to designate the prayer, or any other act of worship, one is performing, in that its sole purpose is to seek proximity to Allah.

Niyyah of qurbah: The intention for prayer, or any other act of worship, made with a view to seeking nearness to Allah. Niyyah of al 
 -Q-                                              


Qurbal mutlaqah: The intention for prayer, or any other act of worship, made with a view to seeking nearness to Allah, but without designating whether it is ada’ or qadha’.

Qadha’: In lieu; when prayer is performed at a later time. (See ada’). 

Qasr: Aconcession for a musafir (traveller) to perform a two-raka’a prayer instead of the full four-raka’a one. (See tamam) 

Qiblah: The direction, of the Ka’ba, one must face while praying.

Qiyam: Standing upright during prayer.

Qunoot: The raising of both hands for supplication in prayer.


 -R-                                               


Raddil Madhaalim: Making amends, or paying reparations.

Raka’a,ruku’: The bowing position in prayer.

Rami: Throwing seven pebbles or small stones at Jamarat on Eid day, part of hajj rituals. (See Jamarat).

 -S-                                                   


(s.a.w.) : An acronym for "Sallal lahu alaihi May peace be with him, i.e. the Prophet and his pure progeny. 

Sadaqah: Almsgiving.

Sajdatay-as Sahu, or Sujood as-Sahu: The two compensatory prostrations in lieu of any omission or commission in prayer due to forgetfulness..

Salah/t:  Prayer

Salatul ayaat: Prayer for signs, or natural phenomena.

Salatul itiyat: Precautionary prayer.

Salatul lail: Night voluntary prayer.

Sawm: Fasting.

Sa’y: Seven laps of brisk walking between the mounts of Safa and Marwah - an obligatory part of hajj rituals. 

Shari’a: Religious law.

Shari’i: Islamic or legal.

Subh: Dawn prayer.

Sujood: Prostration.

Sunnah: Modes, practices, customs, and traditions of the Prophet Mohammad (s.a.w.).

Surah :Any chapter of the Holy Qur’an.

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Taharah: Ritual purity.

Tahir: The state of being ritually pure, the opposite of najis.

Takbir: The utterance of "Allahu Akbar": God is Great. 

Takbiratul Ihram: The utterance, at the start of prayer, of "Allahu Akbar": God is Great. 

Talbiyah: Lit. waiting or standing for orders; the utterance of "labaik allahuma labaik, labaik la sharika laka labaik, Innal hamda wann’imat laka wal mulk, la sharika lak" - I stand up for Your service, O God! I stand up! I stand up! There is no partner with You! I stand up for Your service! Verily Yours is the praise, the beneficence, and the dominion! There is no partner with You.

Tamam: A full four-raka’a prayer. (See qasr).

Taqiyyah: Dissimulation about one’s religious beliefs in order to protect oneself, family, or property from harm.

Taqleed:The following, by a lay person, of a learned cleric (Mujtahid) in matters of religious pratice.

Taqseer: Cutting one’s hair, clipping one’s moustache or beard, or cutting off the nails - an act that heralds the exit from the state of ihram.

Tarwiyah: Lit. satisfying thirst, or giving attention; the 8th day of hajj.

Tasbeeh: The statement of "subhana rabiyal adheemi wabihamdih / subhana rabiyal al a’ala wabihamdih" - Glory be to my Lord, the Great, and praise belongs to Him / Glory be to my Exalted Lord, and praise belongs to Him", usually made during ruku’/sujood in prayer.

 Tashahhud: The statement of faith, "alhamdu lillah, Ashhadu alla illah illal lah, wa ashhadu anna Mohammadan abduhu wa rasuluh, etc." - I bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Mohammad is His Apostle, etc." usually made in prayer from a sitting position after the second ruku’ and third (in Maghrib) and fourth in (Dhuhr, Asr, and Isha’).

Tashreeq: Lit. drying meat in the sun; a name given to the 11th and 21th days of Thil Hijjah after the sacrifice at Mina during Hajj.

Tasleem: The concluding statement of prayer, "assalamu alaika ayyuhan nabiyu, warahmatullahi wabarakatuh, assalamu alaina wa’ala ibadillahis saliheen, assalamu alaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh" - Peace be with you, OProphet, and God’s mercy and blessing. Peace be with us, and upon the righteous servants of God. Peace be with you ]all[, and God’s mercy and blessing.

Tawaf: Circumambulation - Turning seven times around the Ka’ba.


Tawafun Nisa’: Lit. women’s circumambulation; an integral part of hajj devotion, on performance of which and that of its prayer, sexual relations between man and wife return to normal.

Tawsilat: Acts of worship that are embarked on for the good which will result from observing them.

Tayammum: Lit. intending or proposing to do a thing; dry ablution, i.e. using dust instead of water, as in the cases of wudhu and ghusl when, for specific reasons, these acts are not possible.

Thawab: Reward from God in return for good deeds.

-U-                                                

Ulema: Scholars or doctors of religion.

Ummah: Islamic community.

Umrah: Lesser hajj, or visitation that can be performed at any time, except on the days of hajj in the month of Thil Hijjah. 

Umrah Mufradah:A voluntary type of umrah.

Umrat-ut-Tamattu’: A visitation ritual that is obligatory before performing hajj.

Urf: Generally accepted practice, custom, or usage.

-W-                                            

Wajib: An obligatory act of worship. (See must hab - a voluntary act).

Wajibun aini: The obligation that falls on every adultMuslim.

Wajibun kifa’i: A collective obligation imposed on the Muslim community; however, if only one Muslim carry it through, the rest are automatically absolved of the responsibility.

Waqf: Religious endowment.

Wudhu:An act of ablution that is required before the performance of certain actions.

Wuquf: Devotional stay at Arafat, Mash’ar and Mina as part of hajj rituals.

Witr: An odd rak’a that forms the final part of salatul lail - night optional prayer. 

 -Z-                                          

Zakat/h: Lit. purification; a kind of religious tax: a portion of property bestowed in alms, as a sanctification of the remainder to the proprietor. 

Zawaal: The zenith of the sun, just before it declines towards the West.