Ada’: Lit. on time; when prayer, or any
other act of worship is performed on its prescribed time. (Compare
Adnal hil: Nearest point to the area of
Haram where ihram can be worn, its niyyah can be r newed.
Adhan: The call for prayer.
bilma’rouf wannahi anil munkar: Enjoining what is good and
forbdding what is wrong.
Hakim Shari’: Jurist or Marji’
acronym for "Alaihis salaam": May peace be with him.
Asr: Afternoon prayer.
Lit. sign; verse of the Holy Qur’an.
of Sajdah: The four Qur’anic Verses in the Chapters: Iqra’,
an-Najm, as-Sajdah, and Fussilat; it is obligatory to prostrate
oneself on hearing them recited.
Ba’adaz zawaal: After the disc of the
sun descends towards the West. (See zawaal).
Basmalah: An acronym for
"Bismillahir Rahman ar Ra In the Name of Allah, the
Compassionate, the Merciful.
Batil: Lit. null and void, or invalid and
unlawful, e.g. A contract becomes batil when it does not satisfy the
divine laws of Islam.
Dhuhr: Lit. noon; lunchtime prayer.
Remembrance :The utterance of "subhanal lah, wal hamdu lillah,
wala illahh illal lah, wallahu akbar" - Glory be to Allah; praise
be to Allah; there is no god but Allah; Allah is great, which is
usually made during the second and third ruku’ of a prayer
Dirham:3.456 grams of silver.
Festivities marking the end of the fasting season, or festivities of
sacrifice after hajj.
A unit of distance, equivalent to eleven kilometres.
Redemption (from certain religious obligations by a material donation
or a ritual act).
Obligatory bathing that is required after certain acts or occurrences,
as a prelude to some acts of worship.
Hadith: Prophetic traditions: sayings and
actions of Prophet Mohammad )s.a.w.)
Hady: Sacrificial offering, as part of
The pilgrimage to Mekka undertaken according to the prescribed ritual
during the month of Thil Hijja
Islam: A Muslim’s maiden pilgrimage to Mekka, that is
obligatory when you can afford the journey.
Hajjul Ifraad: A type of hajj which is
applicable to those who live in Makkah or at a certain distance from
Hajjul Qiraan:The performance of hajj and
umrah at the same time.
Hajji-ut- Tamatu:A type of hajj which is
applicable to those living outside Makkah, i.e. away from the
Halal: Lawful for use, consumption, or to
or forbidden for use, consumption, or to act upon.
Harakat:Marks or symbols, such as
shaddah, maddah, tanween, hamzatul wasl or qat’, appearing above the
Arabic characters or below them that denote and aid the proper
pronunciation of the words, both independently and in relation to
other words in the sentence.
Haram: Lit. sacred, holy; the complex of
The Grand Mosque )al masjidil haraam( in Makkah and the surrounding
Haydh: A woman’s monthly period.
tarakhus: The point at the periphery of a town where, for
example, adhan could beheard.This concerns distances to determine
whether prayer should be said tamam or qasr.
Ibadaat: Acts of worship.
The special two-piece seamless attire worn by pilgrims. Also, the
state of ritual consecration during which the pilgrim should abstain
from certain acts, such as not combing, not shaving, and observing
Ihtiyat: Lit. precaution, or prudence; a
level of religious legal judgement by a jurist.
Ihtiyat wujubi: Obligatory precaution
that must be adhered to.
mustahab: Voluntary precaution.
Ijtihad: Lit. exertion; the process of
arriving at judgements on points of religious law using reason and the
principles of jurisprudence (usul al-fiqh).
Inshallah: God willing.
Lit. seclusion; applying oneself zealously for the service of Allah,
for a given period, usually in a mosque.
A shortened form of adhan, heralding the inauguration of prayer.
Isha: Evening prayer.
Grey area, or problematic for the jurist to give a clear-cut opinion.
Istihadhah: Undue menses, or lesser
The process of asking Allah for guidance in certain matters you are
unable to decide on, through, for example, consulting the verses of
the Holy Qur’an .
Istisqa’: prayer for rainfall.
Freeing of a slave.
Lit. splint: a generic name used for any form of dressing
applied to any part of the body as a result of injury or illness.
Jamarat: Places of the three stone slabs
representing the devil, at Mina.(See rami)
Janabah: The state of being ceremonially
unclean, especially after a sexual act that may or may not lead to
Jihad: Lit. effort or striving; holy war
against the infidels, especially in self-defence.
Atonement, or expiation: making repayment for some failure to act,
harm done to others, etc.
Khabath: material uncleanliness (najasah)
such as blood and urine.
Khums: A type of religious tax,
equivalent to one fifth of net taxable income.
Kurr : Kurr A unit of volume, equivalent
to 384 litres of water.
Madhalim: Material or moral restitution
or compensation to people you have wronged.
Usurped or acquired by unlawful means.
One’s immediate relatives - according to a certain classification
detailed in Shari’a law.
Hajj: Pilgrimage rites
Marji’: Lit. reference point for
emulation, or religious authority; a cleric whose knowledge and
probity qualify him to be followed in all points of religious practice
and law by the generality of Shia Muslims
Mujtahid: A clergyman who has studied sufficiently and achieved
the level of competence necessary to interpret shari’a law )see
water and other equity); free for public use.
Comopos mentis; the person obligated to observe the precepts of
A voluntary, and meritorious, act of worship. (See wajib - obligatory)
Mudhaf: (Of water)؛ mixed not pure.
Mutahirat: Purifying agents.
Mutlaq: (Of water)؛ pure not mixed.
Muwakkil: Mandator, i.e. the person
who use the services of an agent for performing a devotional act for
Najasah: Ritual impurity
things are inherently najis, others can become najis through contact
with an inherently najis substances.
Nifas: Bleeding that occurs after
childbirth, miscarriage, or abortion.
Nisab: Minimum amount of property
liable to payment of zakat.
Niyyah:Intention: to designate the
prayer, or any other act of worship, one is performing, in that its
sole purpose is to seek proximity to Allah.
Niyyah of qurbah: The intention
for prayer, or any other act of worship, made with a view to seeking
nearness to Allah. Niyyah of al
Qurbal mutlaqah: The intention for
prayer, or any other act of worship, made with a view to seeking
nearness to Allah, but without designating whether it is ada’ or
Qadha’: In lieu; when prayer is
performed at a later time. (See ada’).
Qasr: Aconcession for a musafir
(traveller) to perform a two-raka’a prayer instead of the full
four-raka’a one. (See tamam)
Qiblah: The direction, of the
Ka’ba, one must face while praying.
Qiyam: Standing upright during prayer.
Qunoot: The raising of both hands
for supplication in prayer.
Raddil Madhaalim: Making amends, or
The bowing position in prayer.
seven pebbles or small stones at Jamarat on Eid day, part of hajj
rituals. (See Jamarat).
(s.a.w.) : An acronym for "Sallal
lahu alaihi May peace be with him, i.e. the Prophet and his pure
Sajdatay-as Sahu, or Sujood as-Sahu: The
two compensatory prostrations in lieu of any omission or commission in
prayer due to forgetfulness..
ayaat: Prayer for signs, or natural phenomena.
Salatul itiyat: Precautionary prayer.
Salatul lail: Night voluntary
laps of brisk walking between the mounts of Safa and Marwah - an
obligatory part of hajj rituals.
Subh: Dawn prayer.
Sunnah: Modes, practices, customs,
and traditions of the Prophet Mohammad (s.a.w.).
Surah :Any chapter of the Holy Qur’an.
Tahir: The state of being ritually
pure, the opposite of najis.
Takbir: The utterance of
"Allahu Akbar": God is Great.
Ihram: The utterance, at the start of prayer, of
"Allahu Akbar": God is Great.
waiting or standing for orders; the utterance of "labaik allahuma
labaik, labaik la sharika laka labaik, Innal hamda wann’imat laka
wal mulk, la sharika lak" - I stand up for Your service, O God! I
stand up! I stand up! There is no partner with You! I stand up for
Your service! Verily Yours is the praise, the beneficence, and the
dominion! There is no partner with You.
Tamam: A full four-raka’a prayer. (See
about one’s religious beliefs in order to protect oneself, family,
or property from harm.
following, by a lay person, of a learned cleric (Mujtahid) in matters
of religious pratice.
Taqseer: Cutting one’s hair,
clipping one’s moustache or beard, or cutting off the nails - an act
that heralds the exit from the state of ihram.
Tarwiyah: Lit. satisfying thirst, or
giving attention; the 8th day of hajj.
statement of "subhana rabiyal adheemi wabihamdih / subhana
rabiyal al a’ala wabihamdih" - Glory be to my Lord, the Great,
and praise belongs to Him / Glory be to my Exalted Lord, and praise
belongs to Him", usually made during ruku’/sujood in prayer.
statement of faith, "alhamdu lillah, Ashhadu alla illah illal
lah, wa ashhadu anna Mohammadan abduhu wa rasuluh, etc." - I bear
witness that there is no god but Allah and that Mohammad is His
Apostle, etc." usually made in prayer from a sitting position
after the second ruku’ and third (in Maghrib) and fourth in (Dhuhr,
Asr, and Isha’).
Tashreeq: Lit. drying meat in the
sun; a name given to the 11th and 21th days of Thil Hijjah after the
sacrifice at Mina during Hajj.
Tasleem: The concluding statement of
prayer, "assalamu alaika ayyuhan nabiyu, warahmatullahi
wabarakatuh, assalamu alaina wa’ala ibadillahis saliheen, assalamu
alaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh" - Peace be with you,
OProphet, and God’s mercy and blessing. Peace be with us, and upon
the righteous servants of God. Peace be with you ]all[, and God’s
mercy and blessing.
Tawaf: Circumambulation - Turning
seven times around the Ka’ba.
Tawafun Nisa’: Lit. women’s
circumambulation; an integral part of hajj devotion, on performance of
which and that of its prayer, sexual relations between man and wife
return to normal.
Tawsilat: Acts of worship that are
embarked on for the good which will result from observing them.
Tayammum: Lit. intending or
proposing to do a thing; dry ablution, i.e. using dust instead of
water, as in the cases of wudhu and ghusl when, for specific reasons,
these acts are not possible.
Thawab: Reward from God in return for
or doctors of religion.
hajj, or visitation that can be performed at any time, except on the
days of hajj in the month of Thil Hijjah.
Umrah Mufradah:A voluntary type of umrah.
visitation ritual that is obligatory before performing hajj.
accepted practice, custom, or usage.
obligatory act of worship. (See must hab - a voluntary act).
aini: The obligation that falls on every adultMuslim.
kifa’i: A collective obligation imposed on the Muslim
community; however, if only one Muslim carry it through, the rest are
automatically absolved of the responsibility.
Waqf: Religious endowment.
act of ablution that is required before the performance of certain
Wuquf: Devotional stay at Arafat,
Mash’ar and Mina as part of hajj rituals.
Witr: An odd rak’a that forms the
final part of salatul lail - night optional prayer.
Zakat/h: Lit. purification; a kind of
religious tax: a portion of property bestowed in alms, as a
sanctification of the remainder to the proprietor.
Zawaal: The zenith of the sun, just
before it declines towards the West.